Reveal.js

一个专门用来做 HTML 演示文稿的框架

reveal.js Build Status

A framework for easily creating beautiful presentations using HTML. Check out the live demo.

reveal.js comes with a broad range of features including nested slides, Markdown contents, PDF export, speaker notes and a JavaScript API. It's best viewed in a modern browser but fallbacks are available to make sure your presentation can still be viewed elsewhere.

More reading:

  • Installation: Step-by-step instructions for getting reveal.js running on your computer.
  • Changelog: Up-to-date version history.
  • Examples: Presentations created with reveal.js, add your own!
  • Browser Support: Explanation of browser support and fallbacks.
  • Plugins: A list of plugins that can be used to extend reveal.js.

Online Editor

Presentations are written using HTML or Markdown but there's also an online editor for those of you who prefer a graphical interface. Give it a try at http://slides.com.

Instructions

Markup

Markup hierarchy needs to be <div class="reveal"> <div class="slides"> <section> where the <section> represents one slide and can be repeated indefinitely. If you place multiple <section>'s inside of another <section> they will be shown as vertical slides. The first of the vertical slides is the "root" of the others (at the top), and it will be included in the horizontal sequence. For example:

<div class="reveal">
    <div class="slides">
        <section>Single Horizontal Slide</section>
        <section>
            <section>Vertical Slide 1</section>
            <section>Vertical Slide 2</section>
        </section>
    </div>
</div>

Markdown

It's possible to write your slides using Markdown. To enable Markdown, add the data-markdown attribute to your <section> elements and wrap the contents in a <script type="text/template"> like the example below.

This is based on data-markdown from Paul Irish modified to use marked to support Github Flavoured Markdown. Sensitive to indentation (avoid mixing tabs and spaces) and line breaks (avoid consecutive breaks).

<section data-markdown>
    <script type="text/template">
        ## Page title

        A paragraph with some text and a [link](http://hakim.se).
    </script>
</section>

External Markdown

You can write your content as a separate file and have reveal.js load it at runtime. Note the separator arguments which determine how slides are delimited in the external file. The data-charset attribute is optional and specifies which charset to use when loading the external file.

When used locally, this feature requires that reveal.js runs from a local web server.

<section data-markdown="example.md"  
         data-separator="^\n\n\n"  
         data-separator-vertical="^\n\n"  
         data-separator-notes="^Note:"  
         data-charset="iso-8859-15">
</section>

Element Attributes

Special syntax (in html comment) is available for adding attributes to Markdown elements. This is useful for fragments, amongst other things.

<section data-markdown>
    <script type="text/template">
        - Item 1 <!-- .element: class="fragment" data-fragment-index="2" -->
        - Item 2 <!-- .element: class="fragment" data-fragment-index="1" -->
    </script>
</section>

Slide Attributes

Special syntax (in html comment) is available for adding attributes to the slide <section> elements generated by your Markdown.

<section data-markdown>
    <script type="text/template">
    <!-- .slide: data-background="#ff0000" -->
        Markdown content
    </script>
</section>

Configuration

At the end of your page you need to initialize reveal by running the following code. Note that all config values are optional and will default as specified below.

Reveal.initialize({

    // Display controls in the bottom right corner
    controls: true,

    // Display a presentation progress bar
    progress: true,

    // Display the page number of the current slide
    slideNumber: false,

    // Push each slide change to the browser history
    history: false,

    // Enable keyboard shortcuts for navigation
    keyboard: true,

    // Enable the slide overview mode
    overview: true,

    // Vertical centering of slides
    center: true,

    // Enables touch navigation on devices with touch input
    touch: true,

    // Loop the presentation
    loop: false,

    // Change the presentation direction to be RTL
    rtl: false,

    // Turns fragments on and off globally
    fragments: true,

    // Flags if the presentation is running in an embedded mode,
    // i.e. contained within a limited portion of the screen
    embedded: false,

    // Flags if we should show a help overlay when the questionmark
    // key is pressed
    help: true,

    // Number of milliseconds between automatically proceeding to the
    // next slide, disabled when set to 0, this value can be overwritten
    // by using a data-autoslide attribute on your slides
    autoSlide: 0,

    // Stop auto-sliding after user input
    autoSlideStoppable: true,

    // Enable slide navigation via mouse wheel
    mouseWheel: false,

    // Hides the address bar on mobile devices
    hideAddressBar: true,

    // Opens links in an iframe preview overlay
    previewLinks: false,

    // Transition style
    transition: 'default', // none/fade/slide/convex/concave/zoom

    // Transition speed
    transitionSpeed: 'default', // default/fast/slow

    // Transition style for full page slide backgrounds
    backgroundTransition: 'default', // none/fade/slide/convex/concave/zoom

    // Number of slides away from the current that are visible
    viewDistance: 3,

    // Parallax background image
    parallaxBackgroundImage: '', // e.g. "'https://s3.amazonaws.com/hakim-static/reveal-js/reveal-parallax-1.jpg'"

    // Parallax background size
    parallaxBackgroundSize: '', // CSS syntax, e.g. "2100px 900px"

    // Amount to move parallax background (horizontal and vertical) on slide change
    // Number, e.g. 100
    parallaxBackgroundHorizontal: '',
    parallaxBackgroundVertical: ''

});

The configuration can be updated after initialization using the configure method:

// Turn autoSlide off
Reveal.configure({ autoSlide: 0 });

// Start auto-sliding every 5s
Reveal.configure({ autoSlide: 5000 });

Dependencies

Reveal.js doesn't rely on any third party scripts to work but a few optional libraries are included by default. These libraries are loaded as dependencies in the order they appear, for example:

Reveal.initialize({
    dependencies: [
        // Cross-browser shim that fully implements classList - https://github.com/eligrey/classList.js/
        { src: 'lib/js/classList.js', condition: function() { return !document.body.classList; } },

        // Interpret Markdown in <section> elements
        { src: 'plugin/markdown/marked.js', condition: function() { return !!document.querySelector( '[data-markdown]' ); } },
        { src: 'plugin/markdown/markdown.js', condition: function() { return !!document.querySelector( '[data-markdown]' ); } },

        // Syntax highlight for <code> elements
        { src: 'plugin/highlight/highlight.js', async: true, callback: function() { hljs.initHighlightingOnLoad(); } },

        // Zoom in and out with Alt+click
        { src: 'plugin/zoom-js/zoom.js', async: true },

        // Speaker notes
        { src: 'plugin/notes/notes.js', async: true },

        // Remote control your reveal.js presentation using a touch device
        { src: 'plugin/remotes/remotes.js', async: true },

        // MathJax
        { src: 'plugin/math/math.js', async: true }
    ]
});

You can add your own extensions using the same syntax. The following properties are available for each dependency object:

  • src: Path to the script to load
  • async: [optional] Flags if the script should load after reveal.js has started, defaults to false
  • callback: [optional] Function to execute when the script has loaded
  • condition: [optional] Function which must return true for the script to be loaded

Ready Event

A 'ready' event is fired when reveal.js has loaded all non-async dependencies and is ready to start navigating. To check if reveal.js is already 'ready' you can call Reveal.isReady().

Reveal.addEventListener( 'ready', function( event ) {
    // event.currentSlide, event.indexh, event.indexv
} );

Presentation Size

All presentations have a normal size, that is the resolution at which they are authored. The framework will automatically scale presentations uniformly based on this size to ensure that everything fits on any given display or viewport.

See below for a list of configuration options related to sizing, including default values:

Reveal.initialize({

    ...

    // The "normal" size of the presentation, aspect ratio will be preserved
    // when the presentation is scaled to fit different resolutions. Can be
    // specified using percentage units.
    width: 960,
    height: 700,

    // Factor of the display size that should remain empty around the content
    margin: 0.1,

    // Bounds for smallest/largest possible scale to apply to content
    minScale: 0.2,
    maxScale: 1.5

});

Auto-sliding

Presentations can be configured to progress through slides automatically, without any user input. To enable this you will need to tell the framework how many milliseconds it should wait between slides:

// Slide every five seconds
Reveal.configure({
  autoSlide: 5000
});

When this is turned on a control element will appear that enables users to pause and resume auto-sliding. Alternatively, sliding can be paused or resumed by pressing »a« on the keyboard. Sliding is paused automatically as soon as the user starts navigating. You can disable these controls by specifying autoSlideStoppable: false in your reveal.js config.

You can also override the slide duration for individual slides and fragments by using the data-autoslide attribute:

<section data-autoslide="2000">
    <p>After 2 seconds the first fragment will be shown.</p>
    <p class="fragment" data-autoslide="10000">After 10 seconds the next fragment will be shown.</p>
    <p class="fragment">Now, the fragment is displayed for 2 seconds before the next slide is shown.</p>
</section>

Whenever the auto-slide mode is resumed or paused the autoslideresumed and autoslidepaused events are fired.

Keyboard Bindings

If you're unhappy with any of the default keyboard bindings you can override them using the keyboard config option:

Reveal.configure({
  keyboard: {
    13: 'next', // go to the next slide when the ENTER key is pressed
    27: function() {}, // do something custom when ESC is pressed
    32: null // don't do anything when SPACE is pressed (i.e. disable a reveal.js default binding)
  }
});

Lazy Loading

When working on presentation with a lot of media or iframe content it's important to load lazily. Lazy loading means that reveal.js will only load content for the few slides nearest to the current slide. The number of slides that are preloaded is determined by the viewDistance configuration option.

To enable lazy loading all you need to do is change your "src" attributes to "data-src" as shown below. This is supported for image, video, audio and iframe elements. Lazy loaded iframes will also unload when the containing slide is no longer visible.

<section>
  <img data-src="image.png">
  <iframe data-src="http://hakim.se"></iframe>
  <video>
    <source data-src="video.webm" type="video/webm" />
    <source data-src="video.mp4" type="video/mp4" />
  </video>
</section>

API

The Reveal object exposes a JavaScript API for controlling navigation and reading state:

// Navigation
Reveal.slide( indexh, indexv, indexf );
Reveal.left();
Reveal.right();
Reveal.up();
Reveal.down();
Reveal.prev();
Reveal.next();
Reveal.prevFragment();
Reveal.nextFragment();

// Toggle presentation states, optionally pass true/false to force on/off
Reveal.toggleOverview();
Reveal.togglePause();
Reveal.toggleAutoSlide();

// Change a config value at runtime
Reveal.configure({ controls: true });

// Returns the present configuration options
Reveal.getConfig();

// Fetch the current scale of the presentation
Reveal.getScale();

// Retrieves the previous and current slide elements
Reveal.getPreviousSlide();
Reveal.getCurrentSlide();

Reveal.getIndices(); // { h: 0, v: 0 } }
Reveal.getProgress(); // 0-1
Reveal.getTotalSlides();

// State checks
Reveal.isFirstSlide();
Reveal.isLastSlide();
Reveal.isOverview();
Reveal.isPaused();
Reveal.isAutoSliding();

Slide Changed Event

A 'slidechanged' event is fired each time the slide is changed (regardless of state). The event object holds the index values of the current slide as well as a reference to the previous and current slide HTML nodes.

Some libraries, like MathJax (see #226), get confused by the transforms and display states of slides. Often times, this can be fixed by calling their update or render function from this callback.

Reveal.addEventListener( 'slidechanged', function( event ) {
    // event.previousSlide, event.currentSlide, event.indexh, event.indexv
} );

Presentation State

The presentation's current state can be fetched by using the getState method. A state object contains all of the information required to put the presentation back as it was when getState was first called. Sort of like a snapshot. It's a simple object that can easily be stringified and persisted or sent over the wire.

Reveal.slide( 1 );
// we're on slide 1

var state = Reveal.getState();

Reveal.slide( 3 );
// we're on slide 3

Reveal.setState( state );
// we're back on slide 1

Slide States

If you set data-state="somestate" on a slide <section>, "somestate" will be applied as a class on the document element when that slide is opened. This allows you to apply broad style changes to the page based on the active slide.

Furthermore you can also listen to these changes in state via JavaScript:

Reveal.addEventListener( 'somestate', function() {
    // TODO: Sprinkle magic
}, false );

Slide Backgrounds

Slides are contained within a limited portion of the screen by default to allow them to fit any display and scale uniformly. You can apply full page backgrounds outside of the slide area by adding a data-background attribute to your <section> elements. Four different types of backgrounds are supported: color, image, video and iframe. Below are a few examples.

<section data-background="#ff0000">
    <h2>All CSS color formats are supported, like rgba() or hsl().</h2>
</section>
<section data-background="http://example.com/image.png">
    <h2>This slide will have a full-size background image.</h2>
</section>
<section data-background="http://example.com/image.png" data-background-size="100px" data-background-repeat="repeat">
    <h2>This background image will be sized to 100px and repeated.</h2>
</section>
<section data-background-video="https://s3.amazonaws.com/static.slid.es/site/homepage/v1/homepage-video-editor.mp4,https://s3.amazonaws.com/static.slid.es/site/homepage/v1/homepage-video-editor.webm" data-background-video-loop>
    <h2>Video. Multiple sources can be defined using a comma separated list. Video will loop when the data-background-video-loop attribute is provided.</h2>
</section>
<section data-background-iframe="https://slides.com">
    <h2>Embeds a web page as a background. Note that the page won't be interactive.</h2>
</section>

Backgrounds transition using a fade animation by default. This can be changed to a linear sliding transition by passing backgroundTransition: 'slide' to the Reveal.initialize() call. Alternatively you can set data-background-transition on any section with a background to override that specific transition.

Parallax Background

If you want to use a parallax scrolling background, set the first two config properties below when initializing reveal.js (the other two are optional).

Reveal.initialize({

    // Parallax background image
    parallaxBackgroundImage: '', // e.g. "https://s3.amazonaws.com/hakim-static/reveal-js/reveal-parallax-1.jpg"

    // Parallax background size
    parallaxBackgroundSize: '', // CSS syntax, e.g. "2100px 900px" - currently only pixels are supported (don't use % or auto)

    // Amount of pixels to move the parallax background per slide step,
    // a value of 0 disables movement along the given axis
    // These are optional, if they aren't specified they'll be calculated automatically
    parallaxBackgroundHorizontal: 200,
    parallaxBackgroundVertical: 50

});

Make sure that the background size is much bigger than screen size to allow for some scrolling. View example.

Slide Transitions

The global presentation transition is set using the transition config value. You can override the global transition for a specific slide by using the data-transition attribute:

<section data-transition="zoom">
    <h2>This slide will override the presentation transition and zoom!</h2>
</section>

<section data-transition-speed="fast">
    <h2>Choose from three transition speeds: default, fast or slow!</h2>
</section>

You can also use different in and out transitions for the same slide:

<section data-transition="slide">
    The train goes on … 
</section>
<section data-transition="slide"> 
    and on … 
</section>
<section data-transition="slide-in fade-out"> 
    and stops.
</section>
<section data-transition="fade-in slide-out"> 
    (Passengers entering and leaving)
</section>
<section data-transition="slide">
    And it starts again.
</section>

Note that this does not work with the page and cube transitions.

Internal links

It's easy to link between slides. The first example below targets the index of another slide whereas the second targets a slide with an ID attribute (<section id="some-slide">):

<a href="#/2/2">Link</a>
<a href="#/some-slide">Link</a>

You can also add relative navigation links, similar to the built in reveal.js controls, by appending one of the following classes on any element. Note that each element is automatically given an enabled class when it's a valid navigation route based on the current slide.

<a href="#" class="navigate-left">
<a href="#" class="navigate-right">
<a href="#" class="navigate-up">
<a href="#" class="navigate-down">
<a href="#" class="navigate-prev"> <!-- Previous vertical or horizontal slide -->
<a href="#" class="navigate-next"> <!-- Next vertical or horizontal slide -->

Fragments

Fragments are used to highlight individual elements on a slide. Every element with the class fragment will be stepped through before moving on to the next slide. Here's an example: http://lab.hakim.se/reveal-js/#/fragments

The default fragment style is to start out invisible and fade in. This style can be changed by appending a different class to the fragment:

<section>
    <p class="fragment grow">grow</p>
    <p class="fragment shrink">shrink</p>
    <p class="fragment fade-out">fade-out</p>
    <p class="fragment current-visible">visible only once</p>
    <p class="fragment highlight-current-blue">blue only once</p>
    <p class="fragment highlight-red">highlight-red</p>
    <p class="fragment highlight-green">highlight-green</p>
    <p class="fragment highlight-blue">highlight-blue</p>
</section>

Multiple fragments can be applied to the same element sequentially by wrapping it, this will fade in the text on the first step and fade it back out on the second.

<section>
    <span class="fragment fade-in">
        <span class="fragment fade-out">I'll fade in, then out</span>
    </span>
</section>

The display order of fragments can be controlled using the data-fragment-index attribute.

<section>
    <p class="fragment" data-fragment-index="3">Appears last</p>
    <p class="fragment" data-fragment-index="1">Appears first</p>
    <p class="fragment" data-fragment-index="2">Appears second</p>
</section>

Fragment events

When a slide fragment is either shown or hidden reveal.js will dispatch an event.

Some libraries, like MathJax (see #505), get confused by the initially hidden fragment elements. Often times this can be fixed by calling their update or render function from this callback.

Reveal.addEventListener( 'fragmentshown', function( event ) {
    // event.fragment = the fragment DOM element
} );
Reveal.addEventListener( 'fragmenthidden', function( event ) {
    // event.fragment = the fragment DOM element
} );

Code syntax highlighting

By default, Reveal is configured with highlight.js for code syntax highlighting. Below is an example with clojure code that will be syntax highlighted. When the data-trim attribute is present surrounding whitespace is automatically removed.

<section>
    <pre><code data-trim>
(def lazy-fib
  (concat
   [0 1]
   ((fn rfib [a b]
        (lazy-cons (+ a b) (rfib b (+ a b)))) 0 1)))
    </code></pre>
</section>

Slide number

If you would like to display the page number of the current slide you can do so using the slideNumber configuration value.

// Shows the slide number using default formatting
Reveal.configure({ slideNumber: true });

// Slide number formatting can be configured using these variables:
//  h: current slide's horizontal index
//  v: current slide's vertical index
//  c: current slide index (flattened)
//  t: total number of slides (flattened)
Reveal.configure({ slideNumber: 'c / t' });

Overview mode

Press "Esc" or "o" keys to toggle the overview mode on and off. While you're in this mode, you can still navigate between slides, as if you were at 1,000 feet above your presentation. The overview mode comes with a few API hooks:

Reveal.addEventListener( 'overviewshown', function( event ) { /* ... */ } );
Reveal.addEventListener( 'overviewhidden', function( event ) { /* ... */ } );

// Toggle the overview mode programmatically
Reveal.toggleOverview();

Fullscreen mode

Just press »F« on your keyboard to show your presentation in fullscreen mode. Press the »ESC« key to exit fullscreen mode.

Embedded media

Embedded HTML5 <video>/<audio> and YouTube iframes are automatically paused when you navigate away from a slide. This can be disabled by decorating your element with a data-ignore attribute.

Add data-autoplay to your media element if you want it to automatically start playing when the slide is shown:

<video data-autoplay src="http://clips.vorwaerts-gmbh.de/big_buck_bunny.mp4"></video>

Additionally the framework automatically pushes two post messages to all iframes, slide:start when the slide containing the iframe is made visible and slide:stop when it is hidden.

Stretching elements

Sometimes it's desirable to have an element, like an image or video, stretch to consume as much space as possible within a given slide. This can be done by adding the .stretch class to an element as seen below:

<section>
    <h2>This video will use up the remaining space on the slide</h2>
    <video class="stretch" src="http://clips.vorwaerts-gmbh.de/big_buck_bunny.mp4"></video>
</section>

Limitations:

  • Only direct descendants of a slide section can be stretched
  • Only one descendant per slide section can be stretched

postMessage API

The framework has a built-in postMessage API that can be used when communicating with a presentation inside of another window. Here's an example showing how you'd make a reveal.js instance in the given window proceed to slide 2:

<window>.postMessage( JSON.stringify({ method: 'slide', args: [ 2 ] }), '*' );

When reveal.js runs inside of an iframe it can optionally bubble all of its events to the parent. Bubbled events are stringified JSON with three fields: namespace, eventName and state. Here's how you subscribe to them from the parent window:

window.addEventListener( 'message', function( event ) {
    var data = JSON.parse( event.data );
    if( data.namespace === 'reveal' && data.eventName ='slidechanged' ) {
        // Slide changed, see data.state for slide number
    }
} );

This cross-window messaging can be toggled on or off using configuration flags.

Reveal.initialize({
    ...,

    // Exposes the reveal.js API through window.postMessage
    postMessage: true,

    // Dispatches all reveal.js events to the parent window through postMessage
    postMessageEvents: false
});

PDF Export

Presentations can be exported to PDF via a special print stylesheet. This feature requires that you use Google Chrome or Chromium. Here's an example of an exported presentation that's been uploaded to SlideShare: http://www.slideshare.net/hakimel/revealjs-300.

  1. Open your presentation with print-pdf included anywhere in the query string. This triggers the default index HTML to load the PDF print stylesheet (css/print/pdf.css). You can test this with lab.hakim.se/reveal-js?print-pdf.
  2. Open the in-browser print dialog (CMD+P).
  3. Change the Destination setting to Save as PDF.
  4. Change the Layout to Landscape.
  5. Change the Margins to None.
  6. Click Save.

Chrome Print Settings

Alternatively you can use the decktape project.

Theming

The framework comes with a few different themes included:

  • black: Black background, white text, blue links (default theme)
  • white: White background, black text, blue links
  • league: Gray background, white text, blue links (default theme for reveal.js < 3.0.0)
  • beige: Beige background, dark text, brown links
  • sky: Blue background, thin dark text, blue links
  • night: Black background, thick white text, orange links
  • serif: Cappuccino background, gray text, brown links
  • simple: White background, black text, blue links
  • solarized: Cream-colored background, dark green text, blue links

Each theme is available as a separate stylesheet. To change theme you will need to replace black below with your desired theme name in index.html:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="css/theme/black.css" id="theme">

If you want to add a theme of your own see the instructions here: /css/theme/README.md.

Speaker Notes

reveal.js comes with a speaker notes plugin which can be used to present per-slide notes in a separate browser window. The notes window also gives you a preview of the next upcoming slide so it may be helpful even if you haven't written any notes. Press the 's' key on your keyboard to open the notes window.

Notes are defined by appending an <aside> element to a slide as seen below. You can add the data-markdown attribute to the aside element if you prefer writing notes using Markdown.

When used locally, this feature requires that reveal.js runs from a local web server.

<section>
    <h2>Some Slide</h2>

    <aside class="notes">
        Oh hey, these are some notes. They'll be hidden in your presentation, but you can see them if you open the speaker notes window (hit 's' on your keyboard).
    </aside>
</section>

If you're using the external Markdown plugin, you can add notes with the help of a special delimiter:

<section data-markdown="example.md" data-separator="^\n\n\n" data-separator-vertical="^\n\n" data-separator-notes="^Note:"></section>

# Title
## Sub-title

Here is some content...

Note:
This will only display in the notes window.

Server Side Speaker Notes

In some cases it can be desirable to run notes on a separate device from the one you're presenting on. The Node.js-based notes plugin lets you do this using the same note definitions as its client side counterpart. Include the required scripts by adding the following dependencies:

Reveal.initialize({
    ...

    dependencies: [
        { src: 'socket.io/socket.io.js', async: true },
        { src: 'plugin/notes-server/client.js', async: true }
    ]
});

Then:

  1. Install Node.js
  2. Run npm install
  3. Run node plugin/notes-server

Multiplexing

The multiplex plugin allows your audience to view the slides of the presentation you are controlling on their own phone, tablet or laptop. As the master presentation navigates the slides, all client presentations will update in real time. See a demo at http://revealjs.jit.su/.

The multiplex plugin needs the following 3 things to operate:

  1. Master presentation that has control
  2. Client presentations that follow the master
  3. Socket.io server to broadcast events from the master to the clients

More details:

Master presentation

Served from a static file server accessible (preferably) only to the presenter. This need only be on your (the presenter's) computer. (It's safer to run the master presentation from your own computer, so if the venue's Internet goes down it doesn't stop the show.) An example would be to execute the following commands in the directory of your master presentation:

  1. npm install node-static
  2. static

If you want to use the speaker notes plugin with your master presentation then make sure you have the speaker notes plugin configured correctly along with the configuration shown below, then execute node plugin/notes-server in the directory of your master presentation. The configuration below will cause it to connect to the socket.io server as a master, as well as launch your speaker-notes/static-file server.

You can then access your master presentation at http://localhost:1947

Example configuration:

Reveal.initialize({
    // other options...

    multiplex: {
        // Example values. To generate your own, see the socket.io server instructions.
        secret: '13652805320794272084', // Obtained from the socket.io server. Gives this (the master) control of the presentation
        id: '1ea875674b17ca76', // Obtained from socket.io server
        url: 'revealjs.jit.su:80' // Location of socket.io server
    },

    // Don't forget to add the dependencies
    dependencies: [
        { src: '//cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/socket.io/0.9.16/socket.io.min.js', async: true },
        { src: 'plugin/multiplex/master.js', async: true },

        // and if you want speaker notes
        { src: 'plugin/notes-server/client.js', async: true }

        // other dependencies...
    ]
});

Client presentation

Served from a publicly accessible static file server. Examples include: GitHub Pages, Amazon S3, Dreamhost, Akamai, etc. The more reliable, the better. Your audience can then access the client presentation via http://example.com/path/to/presentation/client/index.html, with the configuration below causing them to connect to the socket.io server as clients.

Example configuration:

Reveal.initialize({
    // other options...

    multiplex: {
        // Example values. To generate your own, see the socket.io server instructions.
        secret: null, // null so the clients do not have control of the master presentation
        id: '1ea875674b17ca76', // id, obtained from socket.io server
        url: 'revealjs.jit.su:80' // Location of socket.io server
    },

    // Don't forget to add the dependencies
    dependencies: [
        { src: '//cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/socket.io/0.9.16/socket.io.min.js', async: true },
        { src: 'plugin/multiplex/client.js', async: true }

        // other dependencies...
    ]
});

Socket.io server

Server that receives the slideChanged events from the master presentation and broadcasts them out to the connected client presentations. This needs to be publicly accessible. You can run your own socket.io server with the commands:

  1. npm install
  2. node plugin/multiplex

Or you use the socket.io server at http://revealjs.jit.su.

You'll need to generate a unique secret and token pair for your master and client presentations. To do so, visit http://example.com/token, where http://example.com is the location of your socket.io server. Or if you're going to use the socket.io server at http://revealjs.jit.su, visit http://revealjs.jit.su/token.

You are very welcome to point your presentations at the Socket.io server running at http://revealjs.jit.su, but availability and stability are not guaranteed. For anything mission critical I recommend you run your own server. It is simple to deploy to nodejitsu, heroku, your own environment, etc.

socket.io server as file static server

The socket.io server can play the role of static file server for your client presentation, as in the example at http://revealjs.jit.su. (Open http://revealjs.jit.su in two browsers. Navigate through the slides on one, and the other will update to match.)

Example configuration:

Reveal.initialize({
    // other options...

    multiplex: {
        // Example values. To generate your own, see the socket.io server instructions.
        secret: null, // null so the clients do not have control of the master presentation
        id: '1ea875674b17ca76', // id, obtained from socket.io server
        url: 'example.com:80' // Location of your socket.io server
    },

    // Don't forget to add the dependencies
    dependencies: [
        { src: '//cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/socket.io/0.9.16/socket.io.min.js', async: true },
        { src: 'plugin/multiplex/client.js', async: true }

        // other dependencies...
    ]

It can also play the role of static file server for your master presentation and client presentations at the same time (as long as you don't want to use speaker notes). (Open http://revealjs.jit.su in two browsers. Navigate through the slides on one, and the other will update to match. Navigate through the slides on the second, and the first will update to match.) This is probably not desirable, because you don't want your audience to mess with your slides while you're presenting. ;)

Example configuration:

Reveal.initialize({
    // other options...

    multiplex: {
        // Example values. To generate your own, see the socket.io server instructions.
        secret: '13652805320794272084', // Obtained from the socket.io server. Gives this (the master) control of the presentation
        id: '1ea875674b17ca76', // Obtained from socket.io server
        url: 'example.com:80' // Location of your socket.io server
    },

    // Don't forget to add the dependencies
    dependencies: [
        { src: '//cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/socket.io/0.9.16/socket.io.min.js', async: true },
        { src: 'plugin/multiplex/master.js', async: true },
        { src: 'plugin/multiplex/client.js', async: true }

        // other dependencies...
    ]
});

Leap Motion

The Leap Motion plugin lets you utilize your Leap Motion device to control basic navigation of your presentation. The gestures currently supported are:

1 to 2 fingers

Pointer — Point to anything on screen. Move your finger past the device to expand the pointer.

1 hand + 3 or more fingers (left/right/up/down)

Navigate through your slides. See config options to invert movements.

2 hands upwards

Toggle the overview mode. Do it a second time to exit the overview.

Config Options

You can edit the following options:

Property Default Description
autoCenter true Center the pointer based on where you put your finger into the leap motions detection field.
gestureDelay 500 How long to delay between gestures in milliseconds.
naturalSwipe true Swipe as though you were touching a touch screen. Set to false to invert.
pointerColor #00aaff The color of the pointer.
pointerOpacity 0.7 The opacity of the pointer.
pointerSize 15 The minimum height and width of the pointer.
pointerTolerance 120 Bigger = slower pointer.

Example configuration:

Reveal.initialize({

    // other options...

    leap: {
        naturalSwipe   : false,    // Invert swipe gestures
        pointerOpacity : 0.5,      // Set pointer opacity to 0.5
        pointerColor   : '#d80000' // Red pointer
    },

    dependencies: [
        { src: 'plugin/leap/leap.js', async: true }
    ]

});

MathJax

If you want to display math equations in your presentation you can easily do so by including this plugin. The plugin is a very thin wrapper around the MathJax library. To use it you'll need to include it as a reveal.js dependency, find our more about dependencies here.

The plugin defaults to using LaTeX but that can be adjusted through the math configuration object. Note that MathJax is loaded from a remote server. If you want to use it offline you'll need to download a copy of the library and adjust the mathjax configuration value.

Below is an example of how the plugin can be configured. If you don't intend to change these values you do not need to include the math config object at all.

Reveal.initialize({

    // other options ...

    math: {
        mathjax: 'http://cdn.mathjax.org/mathjax/latest/MathJax.js',
        config: 'TeX-AMS_HTML-full'  // See http://docs.mathjax.org/en/latest/config-files.html
    },

    dependencies: [
        { src: 'plugin/math/math.js', async: true }
    ]

});

Read MathJax's documentation if you need HTTPS delivery or serving of specific versions for stability.

Installation

The basic setup is for authoring presentations only. The full setup gives you access to all reveal.js features and plugins such as speaker notes as well as the development tasks needed to make changes to the source.

Basic setup

The core of reveal.js is very easy to install. You'll simply need to download a copy of this repository and open the index.html file directly in your browser.

  1. Download the latest version of reveal.js from https://github.com/hakimel/reveal.js/releases

  2. Unzip and replace the example contents in index.html with your own

  3. Open index.html in a browser to view it

Full setup

Some reveal.js features, like external Markdown and speaker notes, require that presentations run from a local web server. The following instructions will set up such a server as well as all of the development tasks needed to make edits to the reveal.js source code.

  1. Install Node.js

  2. Install Grunt

  3. Clone the reveal.js repository

    $ git clone https://github.com/hakimel/reveal.js.git
    
  4. Navigate to the reveal.js folder

    $ cd reveal.js
    
  5. Install dependencies

    $ npm install
    
  6. Serve the presentation and monitor source files for changes

    $ grunt serve
    
  7. Open http://localhost:8000 to view your presentation

    You can change the port by using grunt serve --port 8001.

Folder Structure

  • css/ Core styles without which the project does not function
  • js/ Like above but for JavaScript
  • plugin/ Components that have been developed as extensions to reveal.js
  • lib/ All other third party assets (JavaScript, CSS, fonts)

License

MIT licensed

Copyright (C) 2015 Hakim El Hattab, http://hakim.se

reveal.js Build Status

一个能够帮助我们很轻易地使用 HTML 创建一个漂亮的演示文稿的框架。查看在线 Demo

reveal.js 有很多功能特性,包括 嵌套幻灯片Markdown 内容PDF 导出演讲注释,以及一个 JavaScript API。最好是在现代浏览器中运行,但是对于老的浏览器也有 折衷的方法

在线编辑器

Presentations 是用 HTML 或者 Markdown 写的,但是也为那些更愿意操作图形界面的用户提供了一个在线的编辑器。可以在 http://slides.com 上尝试一下。

安装

The 基本安装 仅仅是安装演示文稿,完整安装 则让你能使用 reveal.js 的所有特性和插件

基本安装

reveal.js 的核心是很好安装的。你只需要下载该库的一个拷贝,然后直接在你的浏览器中打开 index.html 文件

  1. https://github.com/hakimel/reveal.js/releases 下载 reveal.js 的最新版本

  2. 解压并且用你自己的内容替换 index.html 中的实例内容

  3. 在浏览器中打开 index.html 预览

完整安装

某些 reveal.js 的功能,像外部的 Markdown 和演讲注释,需要演示文稿运行在本地的一个web服务器上。下面介绍了如何搭建一个服务器,以及所有你需要为编辑 reveal.js 源码做的开发任务。

  1. 安装 Node.js

  2. 安装 Grunt

  3. clone reveal.js 库

    $ git clone https://github.com/hakimel/reveal.js.git
    
  4. 切换到 reveal.js 文件夹下

    $ cd reveal.js
    
  5. 安装依赖

    $ npm install
    
  6. 监控源文件的改变

    $ grunt serve
    
  7. 打开 http://localhost:8000 预览你的演示文稿

    你可以通过 grunt serve --port 8001 改变端口

文件夹结构

  • css/ 核心样式文件
  • js/ 核心 JavaScript 文件
  • plugin/ 为 reveal.js 开发的组件
  • lib/ 所有其它第三方的资源 (JavaScript, CSS, fonts)

操作指南

HTML 标记

HTML 标记的层次结构需要是 <div class="reveal"> <div class="slides"> <section> 这样的,<section> 代表一个幻灯片并且能够被无限地重复。如果你将多个 <section> 放到另一个个 <section> 的内部,它们将会以垂直幻灯片的方式显示。第一个垂直幻灯片是其它的 “root(根)”,例如:

<div class="reveal">
    <div class="slides"> 
       // 水平
        <section>Single Horizontal Slide</section>
        <section>
           //垂直
            <section>Vertical Slide 1</section>
            <section>Vertical Slide 2</section>
        </section>
    </div>
</div>

Markdown

你可以使用 Markdown 来创建你自己的幻灯片。要启用 Markdown,将 data-markdown 属性添加到你的 <section> 元素中去,并且将内容包含在一个 <script type="text/template"> 里面,像下面的例子:

<section data-markdown>
    <script type="text/template">
        ## Page title

        A paragraph with some text and a [link](http://hakim.se).
    </script>
</section>

外部 Markdown

你可以将你的内容写到一个单独的文件中然后在运行的时候让 reveal.js 去加载。需要注意的是决定幻灯片如何在外部文件分离的 separator 参数。data-charset 属性是可选的,它是用来指定当加载外部文件的时候使用什么字符集。

当在本地使用的时候,这就需要 reveal.js 运行在一个本地服务器上。

<section data-markdown="example.md"  
         data-separator="^\n\n\n"  
         data-separator-vertical="^\n\n"  
         data-separator-notes="^Note:"  
         data-charset="iso-8859-15">
</section>

元素属性

特殊的语法(在 html 注释中)可以被用来给 Markdown 元素添加属性:

<section data-markdown>
    <script type="text/template">
        - Item 1 <!-- .element: class="fragment" data-fragment-index="2" -->
        - Item 2 <!-- .element: class="fragment" data-fragment-index="1" -->
    </script>
</section>

Slide 属性

特殊的语法(在 html 注释中)可以被用来给由你的 Markdown 生成的幻灯片的 <section> 元素添加属性:

<section data-markdown>
    <script type="text/template">
    <!-- .slide: data-background="#ff0000" -->
        Markdown content
    </script>
</section>

配置

在你的页面最后,你需要运行下面的代码来初始化幻灯片。注意,所有的配置的值都是可选的,下面展示的都是默认值:

Reveal.initialize({

    // 是否在右下角展示控制条
    controls: true,

    // 是否显示演示的进度条
    progress: true,

    // 是否显示当前幻灯片的页数
    slideNumber: false,

    // 是否将每个幻灯片改变加入到浏览器的历史记录中去
    history: false,

    // 是否启用键盘快捷键来导航
    keyboard: true,

    // 是否启用幻灯片的概览模式
    overview: true,

    // 是否将幻灯片垂直居中
    center: true,

    // 是否在触屏设备上启用触摸导航
    touch: true,

    // 是否循环演示
    loop: false,

    // 是否将演示的方向变成 RTL
    rtl: false,

    // 全局开启和关闭碎片
    fragments: true,

    // 标识演示文稿是否在嵌入模式中运行,即包含在屏幕的有限部分中的
    embedded: false,

    // 标识当问号键被点击的时候是否应该显示一个帮助的覆盖层
    help: true,

    //  两个幻灯片之间自动切换的时间间隔(毫秒),当设置成 0 的时候则禁止自动切换,该值可以被幻灯片上的 ` data-autoslide` 属性覆盖
    autoSlide: 0,

    // 当遇到用户输入的时候停止切换
    autoSlideStoppable: true,

    // 是否启用通过鼠标滚轮来导航幻灯片
    mouseWheel: false,

    //  是否在移动设备上隐藏地址栏
    hideAddressBar: true,

    // 是否在一个弹出的 iframe 中打开幻灯片中的链接
    previewLinks: false,

    // 切换过渡效果
    transition: 'default', // none/fade/slide/convex/concave/zoom

    // 过渡速度
    transitionSpeed: 'default', // default/fast/slow

    // 全屏幻灯片背景的过渡效果
    backgroundTransition: 'default', // none/fade/slide/convex/concave/zoom

    // 除当前可见的之外的幻灯片数量
    viewDistance: 3,

    // 视差背景图片
    parallaxBackgroundImage: '', // e.g. "'https://s3.amazonaws.com/hakim-static/reveal-js/reveal-parallax-1.jpg'"

    // 视差背景尺寸
    parallaxBackgroundSize: '', // CSS syntax, e.g. "2100px 900px"

    // 移动视差背景(水平和垂直)滑动变化的数量, 例如100
    parallaxBackgroundHorizontal: '',
    parallaxBackgroundVertical: ''

});

这些配置可以在初始化后用 configure 方法来更新:

// 关闭幻灯片自动播放
Reveal.configure({ autoSlide: 0 });

// 每 5 秒自动播放
Reveal.configure({ autoSlide: 5000 });

依赖

Reveal.js 不依赖任何第三方库,但是一些可选的库默认被包含进来了。这些库被作为依赖按照他们出现的顺序被加载进来,比如:

Reveal.initialize({
    dependencies: [
        // Cross-browser shim that fully implements classList - https://github.com/eligrey/classList.js/
        { src: 'lib/js/classList.js', condition: function() { return !document.body.classList; } },

        // Interpret Markdown in <section> elements
        { src: 'plugin/markdown/marked.js', condition: function() { return !!document.querySelector( '[data-markdown]' ); } },
        { src: 'plugin/markdown/markdown.js', condition: function() { return !!document.querySelector( '[data-markdown]' ); } },

        // Syntax highlight for <code> elements
        { src: 'plugin/highlight/highlight.js', async: true, callback: function() { hljs.initHighlightingOnLoad(); } },

        // Zoom in and out with Alt+click
        { src: 'plugin/zoom-js/zoom.js', async: true },

        // Speaker notes
        { src: 'plugin/notes/notes.js', async: true },

        // Remote control your reveal.js presentation using a touch device
        { src: 'plugin/remotes/remotes.js', async: true },

        // MathJax
        { src: 'plugin/math/math.js', async: true }
    ]
});

你也可以使用上面相同的语法添加你自己的扩展。下面的属性可以加到每个依赖对象上:

  • src: 加载脚本的路径
  • async: [可选] 标识该脚本是否应该在 reveal.js 开始后被加载, 默认为 false
  • callback: [可选] 当该脚本被加载后执行的回调
  • condition: [可选] 要加载脚本必须保证该条件方法返回 true

Ready 事件

当 reveal.js 加载完所有非同步的依赖,并且准备好开始工作的时候会触发 'ready' 事件。你可以调用 Reveal.isReady() 来检测 reveal.js 是否已经 'ready'。

Reveal.addEventListener( 'ready', function( event ) {
    // event.currentSlide, event.indexh, event.indexv
} );

演示文稿的尺寸

所有演示文稿都有一个普通的尺寸,也就是当前浏览器的分辨率。为了保证所有元素都适应任何给定的视口, 该框架将会自动均匀地缩放演示文稿。

下面是与尺寸相关的一些配置,包括默认值:

Reveal.initialize({

    ...

    // 演示文稿的”正常“尺寸,当演示文稿被缩放以适应不同屏幕的时候,长款比将会被保存下来。可以用百分比单位。
    width: 960,
    height: 700,

    // 内容周围的空白区大小
    margin: 0.1,

    // 应用到内容上的最小/最大的缩放比例
    minScale: 0.2,
    maxScale: 1.5

});

自动滑动

演示文稿可以被配置成没有任何用户输入行为的情况下自动切换。要启用该特性,你需要告诉该框架两个幻灯片切换的间隔时间(毫秒):

// 每 5 秒滑动一次
Reveal.configure({
  autoSlide: 5000
});

当该特性被启用后,将会出现一个控制条元素,允许用户暂停和重新自动播放。除此之外,也可以点击键盘上的 »a« 来暂停和重新自动播放。当用户开始导航后,幻灯片就自动暂停了,你可以通过在你的 reveal.js 配置中指定 autoSlideStoppable: false 来禁用这些控制条。

你也可以通过使用 data-autoslide 属性来重写每个单独的幻灯片的持续时间:

<section data-autoslide="2000">
    <p>After 2 seconds the first fragment will be shown.</p>
    <p class="fragment" data-autoslide="10000">After 10 seconds the next fragment will be shown.</p>
    <p class="fragment">Now, the fragment is displayed for 2 seconds before the next slide is shown.</p>
</section>

任何时候,只要自动播放模式被恢复或者暂停, autoslideresumedautoslidepaused 事件就会被触发。

键盘绑定

如果你对任何默认的键盘绑定不满意,你可以通过 keyboard 选项来重写它们:

Reveal.configure({
  keyboard: {
    13: 'next', // go to the next slide when the ENTER key is pressed
    27: function() {}, // do something custom when ESC is pressed
    32: null // don't do anything when SPACE is pressed (i.e. disable a reveal.js default binding)
  }
});

延迟加载

当在演示文稿中使用大量的媒体或者内容的时候,延迟加载就很重要了。延迟加载意味着 reveal.js 仅仅只加载离当前当前幻灯片比较近的一些幻灯片中的内容。这些要预加载幻灯片的数量是由 viewDistance 配置项来决定的。

要启用延迟加载,你需要做的仅仅是像下面这样,将 "src" 属性变成 data-src" 属性。支持图片,视频,音频和框架元素。当包含的幻灯片不再显示的时候,延迟加载是不起作用的。

<section>
  <img data-src="image.png">
  <iframe data-src="http://hakim.se"></iframe>
  <video>
    <source data-src="video.webm" type="video/webm" />
    <source data-src="video.mp4" type="video/mp4" />
  </video>
</section>

API

Reveal 对象公开了一组 JavaScript API 来让我们控制导航和读取状态:

// Navigation
Reveal.slide( indexh, indexv, indexf );
Reveal.left();
Reveal.right();
Reveal.up();
Reveal.down();
Reveal.prev();
Reveal.next();
Reveal.prevFragment();
Reveal.nextFragment();

// Toggle presentation states, optionally pass true/false to force on/off
Reveal.toggleOverview();
Reveal.togglePause();
Reveal.toggleAutoSlide();

// Change a config value at runtime
Reveal.configure({ controls: true });

// Returns the present configuration options
Reveal.getConfig();

// Fetch the current scale of the presentation
Reveal.getScale();

// Retrieves the previous and current slide elements
Reveal.getPreviousSlide();
Reveal.getCurrentSlide();

Reveal.getIndices(); // { h: 0, v: 0 } }
Reveal.getProgress(); // 0-1
Reveal.getTotalSlides();

// State checks
Reveal.isFirstSlide();
Reveal.isLastSlide();
Reveal.isOverview();
Reveal.isPaused();
Reveal.isAutoSliding();

Slide Changed Event 幻灯片切换事件

每次幻灯片改变的时候(忽略状态),'slidechanged' 事件就会被触发。该事件对象携带了当前幻灯片的索引值,以及上一个和当前幻灯片 HTML 节点的引用。

某些库,像 MathJax (查看 #226),会对幻灯片的转换和显示状态感到困惑。通常情况下,这可以通过在他们的回调中调用他们的更新或者渲染方法:

Reveal.addEventListener( 'slidechanged', function( event ) {
    // event.previousSlide, event.currentSlide, event.indexh, event.indexv
} );

演示状态

演示文稿当前的状态可以通过 getState 方法来获取。一个状态对象包括所有可以用来将演示文稿返回的信息。像快照一样排序,这是一个简单的对象,可以很容易的序列化和持久化或通过网络发送。

Reveal.slide( 1 );
// we're on slide 1

var state = Reveal.getState();

Reveal.slide( 3 );
// we're on slide 3

Reveal.setState( state );
// we're back on slide 1

幻灯片状态

如果你在一个幻灯片的 <section> 上设置了 data-state="somestate" , 当幻灯片被打开的时候,"somestate" 将会被作为文档元素上的一个样式。这允许您在活动幻灯片的基础上应用广泛的样式更改。

此外,你还可以用过 JavaScript 来监听这些状态的变化:

Reveal.addEventListener( 'somestate', function() {
    // TODO: Sprinkle magic
}, false );

幻灯片背景

幻灯片包含在幕的一个有限区域中,默认情况下,允许它们适应任何视口和缩放一致性。你可以通过给你的 <section> 元素添加一个 data-background 属性来在幻灯片之外添加整个页面的背景。支持四种类型的背景: color, image, video 和 iframe。下面是一些例子:

<section data-background="#ff0000">
    <h2>All CSS color formats are supported, like rgba() or hsl().</h2>
</section>
<section data-background="http://example.com/image.png">
    <h2>This slide will have a full-size background image.</h2>
</section>
<section data-background="http://example.com/image.png" data-background-size="100px" data-background-repeat="repeat">
    <h2>This background image will be sized to 100px and repeated.</h2>
</section>
<section data-background-video="https://s3.amazonaws.com/static.slid.es/site/homepage/v1/homepage-video-editor.mp4,https://s3.amazonaws.com/static.slid.es/site/homepage/v1/homepage-video-editor.webm" data-background-video-loop>
    <h2>Video. Multiple sources can be defined using a comma separated list. Video will loop when the data-background-video-loop attribute is provided.</h2>
</section>
<section data-background-iframe="https://slides.com">
    <h2>Embeds a web page as a background. Note that the page won't be interactive.</h2>
</section>

背景过渡默认使用了一个 fade 动画。通过将 backgroundTransition: 'slide' 传递给 Reveal.initialize() 调用,我们可以将动画改成一个线性滑动过渡。此外,你还可以将 data-background-transition 属性添加到任何 section 上来覆盖全局指定的过渡值。

视差背景

如果你想使用一个视差滚动背景,在 reveal.js 初始化的时候,像下面这样设置头两个配置属性(其它两个可选)

Reveal.initialize({

    // Parallax background image
    parallaxBackgroundImage: '', // e.g. "https://s3.amazonaws.com/hakim-static/reveal-js/reveal-parallax-1.jpg"

    // Parallax background size
    parallaxBackgroundSize: '', // CSS syntax, e.g. "2100px 900px" - currently only pixels are supported (don't use % or auto)

    // Amount of pixels to move the parallax background per slide step,
    // a value of 0 disables movement along the given axis
    // These are optional, if they aren't specified they'll be calculated automatically
    parallaxBackgroundHorizontal: 200,
    parallaxBackgroundVertical: 50

});

确保背景尺寸要比屏幕尺寸稍大一些,以实现某些滚动效果 查看演示

幻灯片切换效果

全局幻灯片切换效果是通过 transition 配置值来设定的。你可以通过指定 data-transition 属性来重写全局配置:

<section data-transition="zoom">
    <h2>This slide will override the presentation transition and zoom!</h2>
</section>

<section data-transition-speed="fast">
    <h2>Choose from three transition speeds: default, fast or slow!</h2>
</section>

此外,你还可以对同一个幻灯片应用不同的 进 和 出 的效果:

<section data-transition="slide">
    The train goes on … 
</section>
<section data-transition="slide"> 
    and on … 
</section>
<section data-transition="slide-in fade-out"> 
    and stops.
</section>
<section data-transition="fade-in slide-out"> 
    (Passengers entering and leaving)
</section>
<section data-transition="slide">
    And it starts again.
</section>

注意,这在页面和立方体的过渡中不起作用。

内部链接

在幻灯片之间链接是很容易的。下面的例子中,第一个链接指向了另外一个幻灯片的索引,第二个链接指向了另外一个幻灯片的ID属性 (<section id="some-slide">):

<a href="#/2/2">Link</a>
<a href="#/some-slide">Link</a>

你也可以将下面的样式添加到任何一个元素上来添加相对导航链接,这和 reveal.js 内置的控制条有点类似(说白了就是自定义 reveal.js 右下角的导航条)。需要注意的是,这些元素将会自动被加上一个 enabled 样式:

<a href="#" class="navigate-left">
<a href="#" class="navigate-right">
<a href="#" class="navigate-up">
<a href="#" class="navigate-down">
<a href="#" class="navigate-prev"> <!-- Previous vertical or horizontal slide -->
<a href="#" class="navigate-next"> <!-- Next vertical or horizontal slide -->

片段

片段被用来在一个幻灯片中来突出显示单独的一个元素。每一个带有 fragment 样式的元素将会在切换到下一个幻灯片之前被走过。这是一个例子 http://lab.hakim.se/reveal-js/#/fragments

默认的片段样式是开始不可见,然后淡入。该样式可以通过给片段加上一个不同的样式被改变:

<section>
    <p class="fragment grow">grow</p>
    <p class="fragment shrink">shrink</p>
    <p class="fragment fade-out">fade-out</p>
    <p class="fragment current-visible">visible only once</p>
    <p class="fragment highlight-current-blue">blue only once</p>
    <p class="fragment highlight-red">highlight-red</p>
    <p class="fragment highlight-green">highlight-green</p>
    <p class="fragment highlight-blue">highlight-blue</p>
</section>

多个片段可以通过包裹依次被应用到同一个元素上,下面的例子中,首先会淡入,然后淡出:

<section>
    <span class="fragment fade-in">
        <span class="fragment fade-out">I'll fade in, then out</span>
    </span>
</section>

片段的显示顺序是可以通过 data-fragment-index 属性控制的。

<section>
    <p class="fragment" data-fragment-index="3">Appears last</p>
    <p class="fragment" data-fragment-index="1">Appears first</p>
    <p class="fragment" data-fragment-index="2">Appears second</p>
</section>

片段事件

当一个幻灯片片段显示或是隐藏的时候都会触发 reveal.js 的一个事件。

某些库,比如 MathJax (查看 #505),对最初的隐藏片段元素感到困惑。通常情况下,这可以通过在他们的回调中调用他们的更新或者渲染方法:

Reveal.addEventListener( 'fragmentshown', function( event ) {
    // event.fragment = the fragment DOM element
} );
Reveal.addEventListener( 'fragmenthidden', function( event ) {
    // event.fragment = the fragment DOM element
} );

代码语法高亮

默认情况下,Reveal 被配置成用 highlight.js 来作为代码高亮。下面是一个使用 clojure 代码作为语法高亮的例子。当 data-trim 被指定的时候,周围的空白就自动移除了。

<section>
    <pre><code data-trim>
(def lazy-fib
  (concat
   [0 1]
   ((fn rfib [a b]
        (lazy-cons (+ a b) (rfib b (+ a b)))) 0 1)))
    </code></pre>
</section>

幻灯片编号

如果你想显示当前幻灯片的编号,你可以使用 slideNumber 配置:

// Shows the slide number using default formatting
Reveal.configure({ slideNumber: true });

// Slide number formatting can be configured using these variables:
//  h: current slide's horizontal index
//  v: current slide's vertical index
//  c: current slide index (flattened)
//  t: total number of slides (flattened)
Reveal.configure({ slideNumber: 'c / t' });

概览模式

点击 "Esc" 或 "o" 键来切换概览模式。当你在这种模式下的时候,你仍然可以在幻灯片之间导航,概览模式有一些 API 钩子:

Reveal.addEventListener( 'overviewshown', function( event ) { /* ... */ } );
Reveal.addEventListener( 'overviewhidden', function( event ) { /* ... */ } );

// Toggle the overview mode programmatically
Reveal.toggleOverview();

全屏模式

只需要在你的键盘上点击 »F« 按键即可进入全屏模式。点击 »ESC« 按键推出全屏模式。

嵌入式多媒体

嵌入的 HTML5 <video>/<audio> 以及 YouTube 内联框架将会在你从一个幻灯片导航离开的时候自动暂停。这可以通过给你的元素指定一个 data-ignore 属性来禁止。

如果你想在幻灯片显示的时候就自动播放,那么就给你的多媒体元素添加 data-autoplay

<video data-autoplay src="http://clips.vorwaerts-gmbh.de/big_buck_bunny.mp4"></video>

除此之外,该框架会自动推送两条 [post messages] 给所有框架,当包含该框架的幻灯片显示的时候推送 slide:start,隐藏的时候推送 slide:stop

拉伸元素

有时候,我们希望加入一个元素,像一个图片或视频,要尽可能地在一个幻灯片中拉伸空间。这可以像下面这样,通过给一个元素添加 .stretch 样式来实现:

<section>
    <h2>This video will use up the remaining space on the slide</h2>
    <video class="stretch" src="http://clips.vorwaerts-gmbh.de/big_buck_bunny.mp4"></video>
</section>

局限性:

  • 只有一个 section 的直接子元素才能被拉伸
  • 每个 section 中只有一个子元素能被拉伸

postMessage API

The framework has a built-in postMessage API that can be used when communicating with a presentation inside of another window. Here's an example showing how you'd make a reveal.js instance in the given window proceed to slide 2:

<window>.postMessage( JSON.stringify({ method: 'slide', args: [ 2 ] }), '*' );

When reveal.js runs inside of an iframe it can optionally bubble all of its events to the parent. Bubbled events are stringified JSON with three fields: namespace, eventName and state. Here's how you subscribe to them from the parent window:

window.addEventListener( 'message', function( event ) {
    var data = JSON.parse( event.data );
    if( data.namespace === 'reveal' && data.eventName ='slidechanged' ) {
        // Slide changed, see data.state for slide number
    }
} );

This cross-window messaging can be toggled on or off using configuration flags.

Reveal.initialize({
    ...,

    // Exposes the reveal.js API through window.postMessage
    postMessage: true,

    // Dispatches all reveal.js events to the parent window through postMessage
    postMessageEvents: false
});

PDF 导出

Presentations can be exported to PDF via a special print stylesheet. This feature requires that you use Google Chrome or Chromium. Here's an example of an exported presentation that's been uploaded to SlideShare: http://www.slideshare.net/hakimel/revealjs-300.

  1. Open your presentation with print-pdf included anywhere in the query string. This triggers the default index HTML to load the PDF print stylesheet (css/print/pdf.css). You can test this with lab.hakim.se/reveal-js?print-pdf.
  2. Open the in-browser print dialog (CMD+P).
  3. Change the Destination setting to Save as PDF.
  4. Change the Layout to Landscape.
  5. Change the Margins to None.
  6. Click Save.

Chrome Print Settings

Alternatively you can use the decktape project.

主题

该框架包含了一些不同的主题:

  • black: 黑色背景,白色文本,蓝色链接(默认主题)
  • white: 白色背景,黑色文本,蓝色链接
  • league: 灰色背景,白色文本,蓝色链接 ( reveal.js < 3.0.0 的默认主题)
  • beige: 米色背景,白色文本,棕色链接
  • sky: 蓝色背景,深蓝色文本,蓝色链接
  • night: 黑色背景,厚白色文本,橙色链接
  • serif: 卡布奇诺背景,灰色文本,棕色链接
  • simple: 白色背景,黑色文字,蓝色链接
  • solarized: 奶油色的背景,深绿色的文字,蓝色的链接

每一个主题都被放在了一个独立的样式表中。要改变主题,你需要用你希望的主题名字替换下面中的 black

<link rel="stylesheet" href="css/theme/black.css" id="theme">

如果你想添加你自己的主题,查看 /css/theme/README.md 的说明。

Speaker Notes

reveal.js comes with a speaker notes plugin which can be used to present per-slide notes in a separate browser window. The notes window also gives you a preview of the next upcoming slide so it may be helpful even if you haven't written any notes. Press the 's' key on your keyboard to open the notes window.

Notes are defined by appending an <aside> element to a slide as seen below. You can add the data-markdown attribute to the aside element if you prefer writing notes using Markdown.

When used locally, this feature requires that reveal.js runs from a local web server.

<section>
    <h2>Some Slide</h2>

    <aside class="notes">
        Oh hey, these are some notes. They'll be hidden in your presentation, but you can see them if you open the speaker notes window (hit 's' on your keyboard).
    </aside>
</section>

If you're using the external Markdown plugin, you can add notes with the help of a special delimiter:

<section data-markdown="example.md" data-separator="^\n\n\n" data-separator-vertical="^\n\n" data-separator-notes="^Note:"></section>

# Title
## Sub-title

Here is some content...

Note:
This will only display in the notes window.

Server Side Speaker Notes

In some cases it can be desirable to run notes on a separate device from the one you're presenting on. The Node.js-based notes plugin lets you do this using the same note definitions as its client side counterpart. Include the required scripts by adding the following dependencies:

Reveal.initialize({
    ...

    dependencies: [
        { src: 'socket.io/socket.io.js', async: true },
        { src: 'plugin/notes-server/client.js', async: true }
    ]
});

Then:

  1. Install Node.js
  2. Run npm install
  3. Run node plugin/notes-server

Multiplexing

The multiplex plugin allows your audience to view the slides of the presentation you are controlling on their own phone, tablet or laptop. As the master presentation navigates the slides, all client presentations will update in real time. See a demo at http://revealjs.jit.su/.

The multiplex plugin needs the following 3 things to operate:

  1. Master presentation that has control
  2. Client presentations that follow the master
  3. Socket.io server to broadcast events from the master to the clients

More details:

Master presentation

Served from a static file server accessible (preferably) only to the presenter. This need only be on your (the presenter's) computer. (It's safer to run the master presentation from your own computer, so if the venue's Internet goes down it doesn't stop the show.) An example would be to execute the following commands in the directory of your master presentation:

  1. npm install node-static
  2. static

If you want to use the speaker notes plugin with your master presentation then make sure you have the speaker notes plugin configured correctly along with the configuration shown below, then execute node plugin/notes-server in the directory of your master presentation. The configuration below will cause it to connect to the socket.io server as a master, as well as launch your speaker-notes/static-file server.

You can then access your master presentation at http://localhost:1947

Example configuration:

Reveal.initialize({
    // other options...

    multiplex: {
        // Example values. To generate your own, see the socket.io server instructions.
        secret: '13652805320794272084', // Obtained from the socket.io server. Gives this (the master) control of the presentation
        id: '1ea875674b17ca76', // Obtained from socket.io server
        url: 'revealjs.jit.su:80' // Location of socket.io server
    },

    // Don't forget to add the dependencies
    dependencies: [
        { src: '//cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/socket.io/0.9.16/socket.io.min.js', async: true },
        { src: 'plugin/multiplex/master.js', async: true },

        // and if you want speaker notes
        { src: 'plugin/notes-server/client.js', async: true }

        // other dependencies...
    ]
});

Client presentation

Served from a publicly accessible static file server. Examples include: GitHub Pages, Amazon S3, Dreamhost, Akamai, etc. The more reliable, the better. Your audience can then access the client presentation via http://example.com/path/to/presentation/client/index.html, with the configuration below causing them to connect to the socket.io server as clients.

Example configuration:

Reveal.initialize({
    // other options...

    multiplex: {
        // Example values. To generate your own, see the socket.io server instructions.
        secret: null, // null so the clients do not have control of the master presentation
        id: '1ea875674b17ca76', // id, obtained from socket.io server
        url: 'revealjs.jit.su:80' // Location of socket.io server
    },

    // Don't forget to add the dependencies
    dependencies: [
        { src: '//cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/socket.io/0.9.16/socket.io.min.js', async: true },
        { src: 'plugin/multiplex/client.js', async: true }

        // other dependencies...
    ]
});

Socket.io server

Server that receives the slideChanged events from the master presentation and broadcasts them out to the connected client presentations. This needs to be publicly accessible. You can run your own socket.io server with the commands:

  1. npm install
  2. node plugin/multiplex

Or you use the socket.io server at http://revealjs.jit.su.

You'll need to generate a unique secret and token pair for your master and client presentations. To do so, visit http://example.com/token, where http://example.com is the location of your socket.io server. Or if you're going to use the socket.io server at http://revealjs.jit.su, visit http://revealjs.jit.su/token.

You are very welcome to point your presentations at the Socket.io server running at http://revealjs.jit.su, but availability and stability are not guaranteed. For anything mission critical I recommend you run your own server. It is simple to deploy to nodejitsu, heroku, your own environment, etc.

socket.io server as file static server

The socket.io server can play the role of static file server for your client presentation, as in the example at http://revealjs.jit.su. (Open http://revealjs.jit.su in two browsers. Navigate through the slides on one, and the other will update to match.)

Example configuration:

Reveal.initialize({
    // other options...

    multiplex: {
        // Example values. To generate your own, see the socket.io server instructions.
        secret: null, // null so the clients do not have control of the master presentation
        id: '1ea875674b17ca76', // id, obtained from socket.io server
        url: 'example.com:80' // Location of your socket.io server
    },

    // Don't forget to add the dependencies
    dependencies: [
        { src: '//cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/socket.io/0.9.16/socket.io.min.js', async: true },
        { src: 'plugin/multiplex/client.js', async: true }

        // other dependencies...
    ]

It can also play the role of static file server for your master presentation and client presentations at the same time (as long as you don't want to use speaker notes). (Open http://revealjs.jit.su in two browsers. Navigate through the slides on one, and the other will update to match. Navigate through the slides on the second, and the first will update to match.) This is probably not desirable, because you don't want your audience to mess with your slides while you're presenting. ;)

Example configuration:

Reveal.initialize({
    // other options...

    multiplex: {
        // Example values. To generate your own, see the socket.io server instructions.
        secret: '13652805320794272084', // Obtained from the socket.io server. Gives this (the master) control of the presentation
        id: '1ea875674b17ca76', // Obtained from socket.io server
        url: 'example.com:80' // Location of your socket.io server
    },

    // Don't forget to add the dependencies
    dependencies: [
        { src: '//cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/socket.io/0.9.16/socket.io.min.js', async: true },
        { src: 'plugin/multiplex/master.js', async: true },
        { src: 'plugin/multiplex/client.js', async: true }

        // other dependencies...
    ]
});

Leap Motion

The Leap Motion plugin lets you utilize your Leap Motion device to control basic navigation of your presentation. The gestures currently supported are:

1 to 2 fingers

Pointer — Point to anything on screen. Move your finger past the device to expand the pointer.

1 hand + 3 or more fingers (left/right/up/down)

Navigate through your slides. See config options to invert movements.

2 hands upwards

Toggle the overview mode. Do it a second time to exit the overview.

Config Options

You can edit the following options:

Property Default Description
autoCenter true Center the pointer based on where you put your finger into the leap motions detection field.
gestureDelay 500 How long to delay between gestures in milliseconds.
naturalSwipe true Swipe as though you were touching a touch screen. Set to false to invert.
pointerColor #00aaff The color of the pointer.
pointerOpacity 0.7 The opacity of the pointer.
pointerSize 15 The minimum height and width of the pointer.
pointerTolerance 120 Bigger = slower pointer.

Example configuration:

Reveal.initialize({

    // other options...

    leap: {
        naturalSwipe   : false,    // Invert swipe gestures
        pointerOpacity : 0.5,      // Set pointer opacity to 0.5
        pointerColor   : '#d80000' // Red pointer
    },

    dependencies: [
        { src: 'plugin/leap/leap.js', async: true }
    ]

});

MathJax

If you want to display math equations in your presentation you can easily do so by including this plugin. The plugin is a very thin wrapper around the MathJax library. To use it you'll need to include it as a reveal.js dependency, find our more about dependencies here.

The plugin defaults to using LaTeX but that can be adjusted through the math configuration object. Note that MathJax is loaded from a remote server. If you want to use it offline you'll need to download a copy of the library and adjust the mathjax configuration value.

Below is an example of how the plugin can be configured. If you don't intend to change these values you do not need to include the math config object at all.

Reveal.initialize({

    // other options ...

    math: {
        mathjax: 'http://cdn.mathjax.org/mathjax/latest/MathJax.js',
        config: 'TeX-AMS_HTML-full'  // See http://docs.mathjax.org/en/latest/config-files.html
    },

    dependencies: [
        { src: 'plugin/math/math.js', async: true }
    ]

});

Read MathJax's documentation if you need HTTPS delivery or serving of specific versions for stability.

License

MIT licensed

Copyright (C) 2015 Hakim El Hattab, http://hakim.se

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